A transaction is a cryptographically signed message that initiates a state transition to the chain state. It can be a simple balance transfer or invoking a smart contract, which in turn executes a program to alter the state.

Transaction Type

Currently, Scroll supports three types of transactions.

  • Pre-EIP-155 Transaction: This is to support the Singleton Factory contract.
  • Legacy Transaction (refer to EIP-155)
  • L1MessageTx Typed Transaction (Type: 0x7E): This is a new EIP-2718 transaction introduced in Scroll as described below. This transaction type is for transactions initiated on L1.

Note that EIP-2930 and EIP-1559 transaction type are not supported in Scroll currently. Scroll will bring back these two transaction types in the future.

L1 Message Transaction

We introduce a new type of transactions L1MessageTx for L1 initiated transactions. This type of transaction is initiated on the L1 bridge contract. Every time a new message is appended to the L1MessageQueue contract on L1, the L2 sequeuncer will create a corresponding L1MessageTx transaction to be included in the L2 blocks. Because the signature was already implicitly verified when users submitted the transaction on L1, L1MessageTx transactions don’t have signature.

The L1MessageTx transaction type is 0x7E and its payload is defined as follows.

type L1MessageTx struct {
	QueueIndex uint64          // The queue index of the message queue in L1 contract
	Gas        uint64          // Gas limit
	To         *common.Address // Cannot be nil, we do not allow contract creation from L1
	Value      *big.Int
	Data       []byte
	Sender     common.Address

The RLP encoding of L1MessageTx transactions follows the EIP-2718 rule TransactionType || TransactionPayload, where TransactionType is 0x7E and TransactionPayload = RLP(L1MessageTx).

Two noticeable behaviors of the L1MessageTx transactions:

  • The QueueIndex in the transaction is the queue index in the L1 message queue, different from the Nonce of the Sender account. But the sender’s Nonce will still increases by 1 after the transaction.
  • This type of transactions doesn’t pay L2 fee or L1 fee. The L2 fee is already paid when users submit transactions on L1. The L1 Fee isn’t charged because the data of L1MessageTx transactions is already available in the L1 bridge contract.

Transaction Life Cycle

The transaction life cycle in the Scroll contains the following three phases:

  1. Confirmed: Users submits a transaction to either the L1 bridge contract or L2 sequencer. The transaction becomes Confirmed after it gets executed and included in a L2 block.
  2. Committed: The transactions are included in a batch and a commit transaction that contains the data of this batch is submitted to L1. After the commit transaction is finalized in the L1 blocks, the transactions in this batch becomes Committed.
  3. Finalized: The validity proof of this batch is generated and verified on the L1. After the finalize transaction is finalized on L1, the status of the transaction is Finalized and becomes a canonical part of the Scroll L2 chain.

Submit Transactions

There are two entry points where users can submit transactions to Scroll.

First, users can directly submit transactions to L2 sequencers. To do so, users just need to configure their wallets and connect to the Scroll RPC endpoint. The sequencer validates the transaction and stores it in its local transaction pool.

Second, deposit and enforced transactions are originated on L1. Scroll L1 bridge contract provides three entry points for users and smart contracts to send transactions from the L1. All messages sent through these three entry points will be appended to the L1MessageQueue contract.

  • The ScrollGatewayRouter contract and several standard token gateways allow users and contracts to deposit standard tokens to L2. See more details in the Deposit Token Gateways.
  • The L1ScrollMessenger contract allows users and contracts to send arbitrary messages to L2. See more details in the Sending Arbitrary Messages.
  • The EnforcedTxGateway contract allows EOAs to initiate an enforced transaction from the same address to withdraw tokens or call other contracts on L2. See more details in the Sending Enforced Transaction.

The Scroll sequencer periodically starts a new mining job. It pulls the L1 messages from the L1MessageQueue contract and transactions in the L2 mempool and seals a block. Once a transaction is included in a L2 block, its status becomes Confirmed.

Commit Transaction Data

The rollup node collects new L2 blocks and packs them into chunks and batches (see more details in Transaction Batching). Periodically it sends a Commit Transaction that posts the data of a batch of transactions to the L1 ScrollChain contract. After the Commit Transaction is finalized in a L1 block, the status of the transactions in this batch becomes Committed. At this time, users can reconstruct L2 state themselves completely based on the committed data from the L1 contract.

Finalize Transactions

After the validity proof is generated, the rollup node sends a Finalize Transaction including the validity proof and the new state root after this batch for onchain verification. Once the Finalize Transaction succeeds and confirmed in a L1 block, the status of the L2 transactions in this batch becomes Finalized. The new state root can be used by third parties trustlessly.

Transaction Batching

Transaction Batching

In Scroll, the transactions are batched in multiple tiers.

  1. A group of ordered transactions are packed into a block.
  2. A series of contiguous blocks are grouped into a chunk. The chunk is the base unit for proof generation of the zkEVM circuit.
  3. A series of contiguous chunks are grouped into a batch. The batch is the base unit for data commitment and proof verification on the L1. The proof for a batch, or a batch proof, is an aggregated proof of the chunk proofs in this batch.

The goal for this multi-layer batching schema is to reduce the gas cost of onchain data commitment and proof verification. This approach increases the granularity of the rollup units on L1 while takes the fixed circuit capacity into consideration. As a result, batching reduces the data to be stored in the contract and amortizes the proof verification cost to more L2 transactions.

Once a chunk is created, a corresponding chunk proving task will be generated and sent to a zkEVM prover. Upon the creation of a new batch, two subsequent actions occur: (a) the rollup node commits the transaction data and block information from this batch to the L1 contract, and (b) a batch proving task to aggregate chunk proofs is dispatched to an aggregator prover. The standards for proposing a chunk and a batch are detailed in the Rollup Node.

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